Here we will learn SQLite Having clause with example and how to use SQLite having clause with a group by, where in select statements with example.
Functionally in SQLite HAVING clause is identical to the WHERE clause. The SQLite HAVING clause is a further condition applied after aggregation takes place along with a group by in select statement.
Generally in the SQLite WHERE clause, which applies a condition to individual elements in a table and HAVING clause is used to add filter conditions based on the groups created by Group By clause.
Always we need to use SQLite HAVING clause with GROUP BY otherwise, it will act as a WHERE clause. In SQLite, the GROUP BY clause will group rows into a set of groups and the HAVING clause will apply filters on groups based on specified conditions.
Following is the syntax of using the SQLite HAVING clause with a select statement.
If you observe above SQLite Having statement, we defined multiple properties those are
To see how to use SQLite Having clause in a select statement, first create a vegetable table and insert some data by running the following queries.
CREATE TABLE vegetable(
INSERT INTO vegetable
Let’s look at records of vegetable table by running following query.
sqlite> SELECT * FROM vegetable
If we want to get color names where it exists more than once in the vegetable table, we need to write a query like as shown below.
SELECT color, count(*)
GROUP BY color
In the above SQLite query, we used Group By with Having clause to get color details where it exists more than one in a vegetable table. The output of the above statement is as follows:
If you don’t need to show the count, as a result, then remove count(*) from a query like as shown in the following example.
GROUP BY color
HAVING count(*) >1;
Following is the result of the above SQLite having clause example.
The main difference is that the WHERE clause can only reference expressions that do not contain aggregate functions, while the HAVING clause can reference any result column.